[ 摘要 ] 目的 回顾性分析淄博市 2016— 2021 年围产儿出生缺陷的发生率及其变化趋势，为降低全市围产儿 出生缺陷发生率提供科学依据。 方法 2016—2021 年淄博市共计 294 671 名围产儿，按照出生年份、城乡分布、 疾病类型以及严重程度进行统计学分析，观察全市围产儿出生缺陷情况及其变化趋势。 结果 淄博市 2016— 2021 年基于医院监测的围产儿数为 294 671 例，上报≥ 28 周的出生缺陷儿 2847 例，总体出生缺陷发生率 为 96.62/ 万，其中城市、农村总体出生缺陷发生率分别为 110.93/ 万、86.35/ 万，城乡总体出生缺陷发生率比 较，差异有统计学意义（χ2 =45.253，P < 0.001）；从变化趋势看，除 2019 年较 2018 年有所下降外（χ2 =2.525， P > 0.05），总体呈逐年上升趋势（χ2 =53.442，P < 0.001）。2016—2021 年 35 岁以上产妇的围产儿出生缺陷发 生率分别为 98.46/ 万、96.38/ 万、124.73/ 万、99.43/ 万、126.37/ 万、138.65/ 万，总体呈逐年递增的趋势 （χ2 =13.211， P < 0.05）。全市前六位高发出生缺陷依次为多指（趾）、先天性心脏病、并指（趾）、外耳其他畸形、尿道下裂、 总唇裂；其中先天性心脏病发生率呈逐年上升趋势（χ2 =48.979，P < 0.001）；多指（趾）、总唇裂发生率呈逐 年下降趋势（χ2 =22.627、12.194，P < 0.05）。 结论 淄博市高发出生缺陷发生风险呈现逐年上升趋势，防治 形势依然严峻。
[Abstract] Objective To retrospectively analyze the incidence and change trend of perinatal birth defects in Zibo City from 2016 to 2021, to provide a scientific basis for reducing the risk of perinatal birth defects in the city. Methods A total of 294 671 perinatal infants in Zibo City from 2016 to 2021 were statistically analyzed according to birth year, urban and rural distribution, disease type and severity, and the situation of perinatal birth defects and its change trend were observed in the city. Results From 2016 to 2021, the number of perinatal infants monitored by hospitals in Zibo City was 294 671, and 2847 cases of birth defects were reported ≥ 28 weeks. The overall incidence of birth defects was 96.62/10 000, among which the incidence of birth defects in urban and rural areas was 110.93/10 000 and 86.35/10 000, respectively. There was significant difference in the incidence of birth defects between urban and rural areas (χ2=45.253, P < 0.001). From the trend of change, except for a decrease in 2019 compared with 2018 (χ2=2.525, P > 0.05), there was an overall increasing trend year by year (χ2=53.442, P < 0.001). From 2016 to 2021, the incidence of perinatal birth defects in women over 35 years old was 98.46/10 000, 96.38/10 000, 124.73/10 000, 99.43/10 000, 126.37/10 000 and 138.65/10 000, respectively, showing an increasing trend year by year (χ2=13.211, P < 0.05). The top six most frequent birth defects in the city were polydactyly (toe), congenital heart disease, syndactyly (toe), other external ear malformations, hypospadias and total cleft lip. The incidence of congenital heart disease increased year by year (χ2=48.979, P < 0.001). The incidence of multiple fingers and total cleft lip decreased year by year (χ2=22.627, 12.194, P < 0.05). Conclusion The high incidence of birth defects risk presents an increasing trend year by year in Zibo City, the prevention and control situation is still grim.